HomeNanotechnologyContact Lenses for Shade Blindness

Contact Lenses for Shade Blindness

In a research printed not too long ago within the journal Scientific Experiences, two-dimensional biologically appropriate and elastic plasmonic contact lenses had been created using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS).

Examine: Two-dimensional biocompatible plasmonic contact lenses for coloration blindness correction. Picture Credit score: Sergey Ryzhov/Shutterstock.com

Right here, an cheap, primary design on the idea of the mild nano-lithography know-how, was devised and examined for correction of pink–inexperienced coloration blindness.

Shade Blindness, Defined

Human coloration notion is derived from three sorts of cone-like photoreceptive cells, specifically lengthy (L), medium (M), and quick (S) cones, which can be important for seeing pink, inexperienced, and blue hues with spectrum sensitivity maxima at 430, 530, and 560 nanometers, respectively.

Shade blindness, also called coloration imaginative and prescient deficiency (CVD), is a watch situation that hinders the detection and interpretation of distinct colours by three photoreceptive cells which can be purposeful and function in keeping with their spectrum sensitivity maxima in regular imaginative and prescient. This eye situation, which can be contracted or genetic, is brought on by a loss or deficit of cone-like photoreceptive cells.

(a) A schematic array of the fabrication process of the proposed PDMS-based lenses, (b) the image of the fabricated PDMS-based lenses, and (c) immersing the PDMS-based lenses into HAuCl4·3H2O gold solution for different incubation times.

Determine 1. (a) A schematic array of the fabrication means of the proposed PDMS-based lenses, (b) the picture of the fabricated PDMS-based lenses, and (c) immersing the PDMS-based lenses into HAuCl4·3H2O gold answer for various incubation occasions. © Roostaei, N., & Hamidi, S. M. (2022)

Totally different Kinds of Shade Blindness

CVD is classed into three classes: dichromacy, monochromacy, and anomalous trichromacy.

Dichromacy develops if one of many three cone-like photoreceptive cell varieties is totally absent; and is classed as protanopia (absence of pink cone-shaped photoreceptors), deuteranopia (absence of inexperienced cone-shaped photoreceptors), or tritanopia (lacking blue cone-shaped photoreceptors).

Monochromacy is essentially the most unusual form of coloration blindness, characterised by the absence of at minimal two cone-like photoreceptive cell varieties.

Monochromats are both totally colorblind (achromatopsia) or solely have blue cone-like photoreceptive cells. Anomalous trichromacy, the third class, arises if one of many cone-like photoreceptive cell varieties is defective.

Anomalous trichromacy is classed into three varieties primarily based on which cone-like photoreceptive cell sort is flawed: deuteranomaly (flawed inexperienced cone-shaped photoreceptors), protanomaly (flawed pink cone-shaped photoreceptors), and tritanomaly (flawed blue cone-shaped photoreceptors).

Protans (protanomaly and protanopia) and deutans (deuteranomaly and deuteranopia), colloquially referred to as pink coloration blindness, are the most common sorts of coloration blindness.

In protanomaly, the spectrum sensitivity crest of the pink cone-shaped cells is blue-shifted, whereas the sensitivity most of the inexperienced cone-shaped cells is red-shifted. Because of the clashing spectral sensitivities of inexperienced and pink photoreceptors, sufferers are unable to distinguish between distinct hues.

(a) A schematic of the fabrication process of the proposed 2D plasmonic contact lenses based on PDMS, and (b) the real image of the fabricated 2D flexible plasmonic contact lens.

Determine 2. (a) A schematic of the fabrication means of the proposed 2D plasmonic contact lenses primarily based on PDMS, and (b) the true picture of the fabricated 2D versatile plasmonic contact lens. © Roostaei, N., & Hamidi, S. M. (2022)

Remedial Measures

Regardless of an excessive amount of precious work into creating a surefire treatment for coloration blindness primarily based on a number of medical pathways of this situation, vital life-style changes stay an unsettled debate. Genetic remedy, coloured spectacles, lenses, optic filters, photoelectronic glasses, and enhanced performance on computer systems and cellular gadgets had been among the many subjects coated in earlier analysis.

Tinted eyeglasses with coloured filters have been totally researched and appear to be extensively out there for CVD therapy.

Whereas these spectacles are profitable for elevated notion of coloration in colorblind individuals, they’ve drawbacks resembling a excessive value, weight and bulk, and lack of integration with different corrective eyewear.

For CVD correction, contact lenses developed with chemical pigments, plasmon meta-surfaces, and plasmonic nanoscale particles have recently been studied.

Nevertheless, these contact lenses confront quite a few obstacles, together with lack of biocompatibility, restricted use, poor stability, greater costs, and the intricacy of the manufacturing course of.

PDMS-Primarily based Lenses to Appropriate Shade Blindness

The current work proposes two-dimensional biologically appropriate and elastic plasmonic contact lenses predicated on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) for coloration blindness rectification, with particular emphasis given to deuteranomaly (pink–inexperienced) coloration blindness, essentially the most frequent form of coloration blindness.

PDMS is a biologically appropriate, pliable, and clear polymer that is likely to be used to make contact lenses. This innocent and biologically appropriate substance has discovered a number of makes use of within the organic, medical, and chemical industries.

A schematic array of the simulated 2D plasmonic contact lens based on PDMS.

Determine 3. A schematic array of the simulated 2D plasmonic contact lens primarily based on PDMS. © Roostaei, N., & Hamidi, S. M. (2022)

Key Findings of the Examine

On this work, two-dimensional biologically appropriate and elastic plasmonic contact lenses made from PDMS had been developed with a cheap and simple design utilizing the mild nanoscale lithographic method and examined for deuteranomaly rectification.

The lens was made from PDMS, a hypoallergenic, innocent, elastic, and clear polymer. This plasmonic contact lens, which relies on the plasmon floor lattice resonance (SLR) phenomenon, could also be used as a wonderful coloration filter for the rectification of deuteranomaly.

The recommended lens has good options resembling sturdiness, biocompatibility, and elasticity, making it appropriate for coloration blindness corrective functions.


Roostaei, N., & Hamidi, S. M. (2022). Two-dimensional biocompatible plasmonic contact lenses for coloration blindness correction. Scientific Experiences, 12. Accessible at: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-022-06089-8

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