HomeRoboticsCompletely satisfied Birthday Nao! - Robohub

Completely satisfied Birthday Nao! – Robohub


NAO robotic. Picture credit: Stephen Chin on Flickr [CC BY 2.0]

Created by the French firm ‘Aldebaran Robotics’ in 2008, and purchased by ‘Softbank Robotics Japan’ in 2015, NAO is an autonomous and programmable humanoid robotic that has been efficiently utilized to analysis and growth functions for youngsters and adults. Greater than 13,000 NAO robots are utilized in greater than 70 nations around the globe. Just about each lab working in human-robot interplay analysis owns a NAO making it the social robotic that has been probably the most used within the historical past of the sphere.

In our paper ‘10 Years of Human-NAO Interplay Analysis: A Scoping Assessment’ revealed in Frontiers in Robotics and AI, we current an summary of the evolution of NAO’s technical capabilities. We additionally current the principle outcomes from a scoping evaluate of the human-robot interplay analysis literature during which NAO was used.

Technical overview of Nao over time

Look-wise, NAO hasn’t aged a bit. The infantile anthropomorphic look of the robotic has stayed just about the identical during the last 10 years. Nonetheless, loads of enchancment has been made during the last variations of the robots.

Evolution of the NAO robotic’s technical attribute since 2008

We additionally word that the software program atmosphere for the robotic has additionally improved over time integrating new applied sciences and options as years handed: face recognition and monitoring, semantic engine. The NAOqi API additionally helps varied programming languages. In 2013, Aldebaran additionally created a developer neighborhood. This neighborhood platform allowed to share assets, behaviours and featured a discussion board. This has most likely participated so much within the enlargement and adoption of robotic with builders and researcher sharing designs of behaviours, and different video games they developed with the robotic.

Quantitative evaluation of the scoping evaluate

Geographical distribution of the papers included in our scoping evaluate

The geographical distribution of authors utilizing NAO for his or her analysis in HRI is unprecedented for a social robotic. NAO has been utilized in greater than 50 nations all around the globe. And we see from the above map that the distribution is properly break up between North-America, Europe and Asia. However nonetheless, identical to in loads of analysis subject the worldwide north, tends to publish greater than southern nations.

By way of the position of the robotic, researchers have investigated totally different software area with the robotic getting used as a peer or a demonstrator in public areas, an academic and assistant for therapists (for youngsters with ASD, studying incapacity or listening to incapacity) being the dominant ones.

Enter information (left), output information (center), tools (proper) for every software subject

As talked about above, NAO is provided with varied sensors and actuators permitting for multi-modal interplay. Usually researchers have used the robotic to talk and/or make gestures. On the notion aspect, the robotic’s restricted speech recognition and poor microphone high quality refrained researcher to make use of NLP however as an alternative made them depend on facial, and gesture recognition. We additionally famous in our evaluation that researchers typically used exterior units equivalent to RGBD cameras or tablets with the intention to seize different alerts permitting to evaluate the scenario.

Qualitative outcomes

A number of research reported how enjoyable and satisfying was the looks of the robotic. NAO is actually not simply an eye-catcher robotic as its portability is very appreciated by the researchers. NAO could be considered a plug-and-play robotic because of its sturdy and simple setup traits. It has additionally been discovered reasonably priced in comparison with different humanoid robots.

On the opposite aspect, a number of technical points have been reported equivalent to low battery life and overheating points. The speech recognition limits the interplay distance and context (i.e. noisy environments). Lastly, not a lot embedded autonomous performance could possibly be used within the preliminary variations.

Nao’s communities

Over time, a number of kinds of communities have shaped across the NAO robotic platform.

1) Instructional communities

In 2010, the College of Tokyo piloted a brand new academic program developed by Aldebaran Robotics that aimed to coach college students to make use of NAO. Together with some reductions to purchase NAO for academic functions, the corporate launched some ebooks. The books and academic program cowl each technical points of utilizing the robotic in addition to extra inventive initiatives that may be given as train to college students. The tutorial market actually helped in making NAO broadly used within the 2010’s.

2) Engineering communities

In 2007, the Robocup determined to make use of the NAO robotic because the official platform for its soccer league. As detailed in the evaluate, this led to fruitful development on technical capabilities of the robotic equivalent to its locomotion and imaginative and prescient system.

Extra not too long ago, the introduction of the Pepper robotic as a brand new platform for the robocup@House problem actually can allow us to assume that it’s going to enhance the robotic’s economical life and produce extra advances in social and at residence duties with the robotic.

3) Analysis communities

Aldebaran had a robust Analysis & Improvement technique in its early days and naturally turned accomplice of a number of massive European initiatives: ALIZ-E, DREAM, SQUIRREL, L2Tor. These methods had the benefit to type the longer term researchers in the usage of their platform and made NAO a dominant robotic in human-robot interplay analysis between 2015 and 2019.

4) Industrial translation

Picture from RobotLab web site visited on December twentieth 2021

Just lately a community of start-ups has woven across the NAO robotic. Offering varied providers equivalent to academic workshops, therapeutic classes, or enterprise and advertising and marketing providers, the variety of these start-ups have raised these previous few years (e.g. Interactive Robotics, RobotLAB and Avatarion).

Conclusion

In our evaluate, we current a complete overview on the usage of NAO, which is a exceptional social robotic in lots of situations. Up to now, NAO has been uncovered to a difficult but rewarding journey. Its social roles have expanded due to its likeable look and multi-modal capabilities adopted by its health to ship socially vital duties. Nonetheless, there are gaps to be crammed in view of sustainable and user-focused human-NAO interplay. We hope that our evaluate can contribute to the sphere of HRI that wants extra reflection and basic proof on the usage of the social robots, equivalent to NAO in all kinds of contexts. An implication of the findings reveals a larger want for growing the worth and sensible software of NAO in user-centered research. Future research ought to take into account the significance of real-world and unrestricted experiments with NAO and contain different people that may facilitate human-robot interplay.

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Wafa Johal
is a Senior Lecturer on the Faculty of Computing & Info Programs, College of Engineering and Info Expertise, College of Melbourne.

Wafa Johal
is a Senior Lecturer on the Faculty of Computing & Info Programs, College of Engineering and Info Expertise, College of Melbourne.




Aida Amirova
a Analysis Assistant on the initiatives of CoWriting Kazakh and Robotic-assisted autism remedy.

Aida Amirova
a Analysis Assistant on the initiatives of CoWriting Kazakh and Robotic-assisted autism remedy.




Nazerke Rakhymbayeva
is a PhD pupil on the Division of Robotics and Mechatronics, Faculty of Engineering and Digital Sciences, Nazarbayev College.

Nazerke Rakhymbayeva
is a PhD pupil on the Division of Robotics and Mechatronics, Faculty of Engineering and Digital Sciences, Nazarbayev College.




Elmira Yadollahi
is a Postdoctoral Analysis Fellow at KTH Royal Institute of Expertise.

Elmira Yadollahi
is a Postdoctoral Analysis Fellow at KTH Royal Institute of Expertise.


Anara Sandygulova
is an Assistant Professor of Robotics at Nazarbayev College.

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