HomeArtificial Intelligence2021 Knowledge/AI Wage Survey – O’Reilly

2021 Knowledge/AI Wage Survey – O’Reilly


In June 2021, we requested the recipients of our Knowledge & AI E-newsletter to reply to a survey about compensation. The outcomes gave us perception into what our subscribers are paid, the place they’re situated, what industries they work for, what their issues are, and what types of profession growth alternatives they’re pursuing.

Whereas it’s sadly untimely to say that the survey befell on the finish of the COVID-19 pandemic (although we will all hope), it befell at a time when restrictions have been loosening: we have been beginning to exit in public, have events, and in some circumstances even attend in-person conferences. The outcomes then present a spot to begin serious about what impact the pandemic had on employment. There was a number of uncertainty about stability, notably at smaller firms: Would the corporate’s enterprise mannequin proceed to be efficient? Would your job nonetheless be there in a yr? On the identical time, staff have been reluctant to search for new jobs, particularly if they’d require relocating—a minimum of in keeping with the rumor mill. Had been these issues mirrored in new patterns for employment?


Study sooner. Dig deeper. See farther.

Govt Abstract

  • The typical wage for information and AI professionals who responded to the survey was $146,000.
  • The typical change in compensation during the last three years was $9,252. This corresponds to an annual enhance of two.25%. Nonetheless, 8% of the correspondents reported decreased compensation, and 18% reported no change.
  • We don’t see proof of a “nice resignation.” 22% of respondents mentioned they meant to alter jobs, roughly what we’d have anticipated. Respondents appeared involved about job safety, in all probability due to the pandemic’s impact on the financial system.
  • Common compensation was highest in California ($176,000), adopted by Japanese Seaboard states like New York and Massachusetts.
  • Compensation for girls was considerably decrease than for males (84%). Salaries have been decrease no matter schooling or job title. Girls have been extra possible than males to have superior levels, notably PhDs.
  • Many respondents acquired certifications. Cloud certifications, particularly in AWS and Microsoft Azure, have been most strongly related to wage will increase.
  • Most respondents participated in coaching of some kind. Studying new expertise and bettering outdated ones have been the most typical causes for coaching, although hireability and job safety have been additionally components. Firm-provided coaching alternatives have been most strongly related to pay will increase.

Demographics

The survey was publicized by way of O’Reilly’s Knowledge & AI E-newsletter and was restricted to respondents in america and the UK. There have been 3,136 legitimate responses, 2,778 from the US and 284 from the UK. This report focuses on the respondents from the US, with solely restricted consideration paid to these from the UK. A small variety of respondents (74) recognized as residents of the US or UK, however their IP addresses indicated that they have been situated elsewhere. We didn’t use the information from these respondents; in observe, discarding this information had no impact on the outcomes.

Of the two,778 US respondents, 2,225 (81%) recognized as males, and 383 (14%) recognized as girls (as recognized by their most well-liked pronouns). 113 (4%) recognized as “different,” and 14 (0.5%) used “they.”

The outcomes are biased by the survey’s recipients (subscribers to O’Reilly’s Knowledge & AI E-newsletter). Our viewers is especially sturdy within the software program (20% of respondents), laptop {hardware} (4%), and laptop safety (2%) industries—over 25% of the entire. Our viewers can also be sturdy within the states the place these industries are concentrated: 42% of the US respondents lived in California (20%), New York (9%), Massachusetts (6%), and Texas (7%), although these states solely make up 27% of the US inhabitants.

Compensation Fundamentals

The typical annual wage for workers who labored in information or AI was $146,000. Most salaries have been between $100,000 and $150,000 yearly (34%); the following most typical wage tier was from $150,000 to $200,000 (26%). Compensation depended strongly on location, with common salaries highest in California ($176,000).

The typical wage change over the previous three years was $9,252, which is 2.25% per yr (assuming a remaining wage equal to the typical). A small variety of respondents (8%) reported wage decreases, and 18% reported no change. Financial uncertainty attributable to the pandemic could also be liable for the declines in compensation. 19% reported will increase of $5,000 to $10,000 over that interval; 14% reported will increase of over $25,000. A research by the IEEE means that the typical wage for technical staff elevated 3.6% per yr, larger than our respondents indicated.

39% of respondents reported promotions prior to now three years, and 37% reported altering employers throughout that interval. 22% reported that they have been contemplating altering jobs as a result of their salaries hadn’t elevated in the course of the previous yr. Is that this an indication of what some have referred to as a “nice resignation”? Frequent knowledge has it that technical staff change jobs each three to 4 years. LinkedIn and Certainly each suggest staying for a minimum of three years, although they observe that youthful staff change jobs extra typically. LinkedIn elsewhere states that the annual turnover price for know-how staff is 13.2%—which means that staff keep at their jobs for roughly seven and a half years. If that’s right, the 37% that modified jobs over three years appears about proper, and the 22% who mentioned they “intend to depart their job as a result of a scarcity of compensation enhance” doesn’t appear overly excessive. Understand that intent to alter and precise change aren’t the identical—and that there are lots of causes to alter jobs other than wage, together with flexibility round working hours and dealing from house.

64% of the respondents took half in coaching or obtained certifications prior to now yr, and 31% reported spending over 100 hours in coaching packages, starting from formal graduate levels to studying weblog posts. As we’ll see later, cloud certifications (particularly in AWS and Microsoft Azure) have been the preferred and appeared to have the biggest impact on salaries.

The explanations respondents gave for taking part in coaching have been surprisingly constant. The overwhelming majority reported that they needed to study new expertise (91%) or enhance current expertise (84%). Knowledge and AI professionals are clearly desirous about studying—and that studying is self-motivated, not imposed by administration. Comparatively few (22%) mentioned that coaching was required by their job, and even fewer participated in coaching as a result of they have been involved about dropping their job (9%).

Nonetheless, there have been different motives at work. 56% of our respondents mentioned that they needed to extend their “job safety,” which is at odds with the low quantity who have been involved about dropping their job. And 73% reported that they engaged in coaching or obtained certifications to extend their “hireability,” which can counsel extra concern about job stability than our respondents would admit. The pandemic was a menace to many companies, and staff have been justifiably involved that their job may vanish after a foul pandemic-influenced quarter. A need for elevated hireability can also point out that we’ll see extra individuals seeking to change jobs within the close to future.

Lastly, 61% of the respondents mentioned that they participated in coaching or earned certifications as a result of they needed a wage enhance or a promotion (“enhance in job title/tasks”). It isn’t shocking that staff see coaching as a path to promotion—particularly as firms that need to rent in fields like information science, machine studying, and AI deal with a scarcity of certified staff. Given the issue of hiring experience from exterior, we anticipate an growing variety of firms to develop their very own ML and AI expertise internally utilizing coaching packages.

Salaries by Gender

To no person’s shock, our survey confirmed that information science and AI professionals are largely male. The variety of respondents tells the story by itself: solely 14% recognized as girls, which is decrease than we’d have guessed, although it’s roughly in step with our convention attendance (again once we had dwell conferences) and roughly equal to different technical fields. A small quantity (5%) reported their most well-liked pronoun as “they” or Different, however this pattern was too small to attract any important comparisons about compensation.

Girls’s salaries have been sharply decrease than males’s salaries, averaging $126,000 yearly, or 84% of the typical wage for males ($150,000). That differential held no matter schooling, as Determine 1 reveals: the typical wage for a girl with a doctorate or grasp’s diploma was 82% of the wage for a person with an equal diploma. The distinction wasn’t fairly as excessive for individuals with bachelor’s levels or who have been nonetheless college students, however it was nonetheless important: girls with bachelor’s levels or who have been college students earned 86% or 87% of the typical wage for males. The distinction in salaries was biggest between individuals who have been self-taught: in that case, girls’s salaries have been 72% of males’s. An affiliate’s diploma was the one diploma for which girls’s salaries have been larger than males’s.

Determine 1. Girls’s and males’s salaries by diploma

Regardless of the wage differential, the next share of ladies had superior levels than males: 16% of ladies had a doctorate, versus 13% of males. And 47% of ladies had a grasp’s diploma, versus 46% of males. (If these percentages appear excessive, understand that many professionals in information science and AI are escapees from academia.)

Girls’s salaries additionally lagged males’s salaries once we in contrast men and women with related job titles (see Determine 2). On the government stage, the typical wage for girls was $163,000 versus $205,000 for males (a 20% distinction). On the director stage, the distinction was a lot smaller—$180,000 for girls versus $184,000 for males—and girls’s salaries have been truly larger than these on the government stage. It’s straightforward to hypothesize about this distinction, however we’re at a loss to clarify it. For managers, girls’s salaries have been $143,000 versus $154,000 for males (a 7% distinction).

Profession development can also be a difficulty: 18% of the ladies who participated within the survey have been executives or administrators, in contrast with 23% of the boys.

Determine 2. Girls’s and males’s salaries by job title

Earlier than shifting on from our consideration of the impact of gender on wage, let’s take a quick take a look at how salaries modified over the previous three years. As Determine 3 reveals, the proportion of women and men respondents who noticed no change was nearly equivalent (18%). However extra girls than males noticed their salaries lower (10% versus 7%). Correspondingly, extra males noticed their salaries enhance. Girls have been additionally extra prone to have a smaller enhance: 24% of ladies had a rise of below $5,000 versus 17% of males. On the excessive finish of the wage spectrum, the distinction between women and men was smaller, although nonetheless not zero: 19% of males noticed their salaries enhance by over $20,000, however solely 18% of ladies did. So probably the most important variations have been within the midrange. One anomaly stands out: a barely larger share of ladies than males acquired wage will increase within the $15,000 to $20,000 vary (8% versus 6%).

Determine 3. Change in wage for men and women over three years

Salaries by Programming Language

Once we checked out the preferred programming languages for information and AI practitioners, we didn’t see any surprises: Python was dominant (61%), adopted by SQL (54%), JavaScript (32%), HTML (29%), Bash (29%), Java (24%), and R (20%). C++, C#, and C have been additional again within the record (12%, 12%, and 11%, respectively).

Discussing the connection between programming languages and wage is hard as a result of respondents have been allowed to verify a number of languages, and most did. However once we appeared on the languages related to the very best salaries, we acquired a considerably completely different record. Essentially the most extensively used and in style languages, like Python ($150,000), SQL ($144,000), Java ($155,000), and JavaScript ($146,000), have been solidly in the midst of the wage vary. The outliers have been Rust, which had the very best common wage (over $180,000), Go ($179,000), and Scala ($178,000). Different much less widespread languages related to excessive salaries have been Erlang, Julia, Swift, and F#. Net languages (HTML, PHP, and CSS) have been on the backside (throughout $135,000). See Determine 4 for the complete record.

Determine 4. Wage vs. programming language

How will we clarify this? It’s tough to say that information and AI builders who use Rust command the next wage, since most respondents checked a number of languages. However we imagine that this information reveals one thing important. The availability of expertise for newer languages like Rust and Go is comparatively small. Whereas there might not be an enormous demand for information scientists who use these languages (but), there’s clearly some demand—and with skilled Go and Rust programmers briefly provide, they command the next wage. Maybe it’s even less complicated: whatever the language somebody will use at work, employers interpret information of Rust and Go as an indication of competence and willingness to study, which will increase candidates’ worth. An analogous argument will be made for Scala, which is the native language for the extensively used Spark platform. Languages like Python and SQL are desk stakes: an applicant who can’t use them may simply be penalized, however competence doesn’t confer any particular distinction.

One shock is that 10% of the respondents mentioned that they didn’t use any programming languages. We’re undecided what which means. It’s attainable they labored completely in Excel, which must be thought-about a programming language however typically isn’t. It’s additionally attainable that they have been managers or executives who not did any programming.

Salaries by Software and Platform

We additionally requested respondents what instruments they used for statistics and machine studying and what platforms they used for information analytics and information administration. We noticed among the identical patterns that we noticed with programming languages. And the identical warning applies: respondents have been allowed to pick a number of solutions to our questions concerning the instruments and platforms that they use. (Nonetheless, a number of solutions weren’t as frequent as for programming languages.) As well as, for those who’re accustomed to instruments and platforms for machine studying and statistics, you understand that the boundary between them is fuzzy. Is Spark a software or a platform? We thought-about it a platform, although two Spark libraries are within the record of instruments. What about Kafka? A platform, clearly, however a platform for constructing information pipelines that’s qualitatively completely different from a platform like Ray, Spark, or Hadoop.

Simply as with programming languages, we discovered that probably the most extensively used instruments and platforms have been related to midrange salaries; older instruments, even when they’re nonetheless extensively used, have been related to decrease salaries; and among the instruments and platforms with the fewest customers corresponded to the very best salaries. (See Determine 5 for the complete record.)

The most typical responses to the query about instruments for machine studying or statistics have been “I don’t use any instruments” (40%) or Excel (31%). Ignoring the query of how one does machine studying or statistics with out instruments, we’ll solely be aware that those that didn’t use instruments had a median wage of $143,000, and Excel customers had a median wage of $138,000—each under common. Stata ($120,000) was additionally on the backside of the record; it’s an older bundle with comparatively few customers and is clearly falling out of favor.

The favored machine studying packages PyTorch (19% of customers, $166,000 common wage), TensorFlow (20%, $164,000), and scikit-learn (27%, $157,000) occupied the center floor. These salaries have been above the typical for all respondents, which was pulled down by the massive numbers who didn’t use instruments or solely used Excel. The very best salaries have been related to H2O (3%, $183,000), KNIME (2%, $180,000), Spark NLP (5%, $179,000), and Spark MLlib (8%, $175,000). It’s laborious to belief conclusions based mostly on 2% or 3% of the respondents, however it seems that salaries are larger for individuals who work with instruments which have a number of “buzz” however aren’t but extensively used. Employers pay a premium for specialised experience.

Determine 5. Common wage by instruments for statistics or machine studying

We see virtually precisely the identical factor once we take a look at information frameworks (Determine 6). Once more, the most typical response was from individuals who didn’t use a framework; that group additionally acquired the bottom salaries (30% of customers, $133,000 common wage).

In 2021, Hadoop typically looks as if legacy software program, however 15% of the respondents have been engaged on the Hadoop platform, with a median wage of $166,000. That was above the typical wage for all customers and on the low finish of the midrange for salaries sorted by platform.

The very best salaries have been related to Clicktale (now ContentSquare), a cloud-based analytics system for researching buyer expertise: solely 0.2% of respondents use it, however they’ve a median wage of $225,000. Different frameworks related to excessive salaries have been Tecton (the industrial model of Michelangelo, at $218,000), Ray ($191,000), and Amundsen ($189,000). These frameworks had comparatively few customers—probably the most extensively used on this group was Amundsen with 0.8% of respondents (and once more, we warning towards studying an excessive amount of into outcomes based mostly on so few respondents). All of those platforms are comparatively new, ceaselessly mentioned within the tech press and social media, and seem like rising healthily. Kafka, Spark, Google BigQuery, and Dask have been within the center, with a number of customers (15%, 19%, 8%, and 5%) and above-average salaries ($179,000, $172,000, $170,000, and $170,000). Once more, the preferred platforms occupied the center of the vary; expertise with much less ceaselessly used and rising platforms commanded a premium.

Determine 6. Common wage by information framework or platform

Salaries by Trade

The best variety of respondents labored within the software program trade (20% of the entire), adopted by consulting (11%) and healthcare, banking, and schooling (every at 8%). Comparatively few respondents listed themselves as consultants (additionally 2%), although consultancy tends to be cyclic, relying on present pondering on outsourcing, tax legislation, and different components. The typical revenue for consultants was $150,000, which is simply barely larger than the typical for all respondents ($146,000). Which will point out that we’re at present in some form of an equilibrium between consultants and in-house expertise.

Whereas information evaluation has develop into important to each form of enterprise and AI is discovering many purposes exterior of computing, salaries have been highest within the laptop trade itself, as Determine 7 makes clear. For our functions, the “laptop trade” was divided into 4 segments: laptop {hardware}, cloud providers and internet hosting, safety, and software program. Common salaries in these industries ranged from $171,000 (for laptop {hardware}) to $164,000 (for software program). Salaries for the promoting trade (together with social media) have been surprisingly low, solely $150,000.

Determine 7. Common wage by trade

Schooling and nonprofit organizations (together with commerce associations) have been on the backside finish of the dimensions, with compensation simply above $100,000 ($106,000 and $103,000, respectively). Salaries for technical employees in authorities have been barely larger ($124,000).

Salaries by State

When taking a look at information and AI practitioners geographically, there weren’t any large surprises. The states with probably the most respondents have been California, New York, Texas, and Massachusetts. California accounted for 19% of the entire, with over double the variety of respondents from New York (8%). To grasp how these 4 states dominate, do not forget that they make up 42% of our respondents however solely 27% of america’ inhabitants.

Salaries in California have been the very best, averaging $176,000. The Japanese Seaboard did properly, with a median wage of $157,000 in Massachusetts (second highest). New York, Delaware, New Jersey, Maryland, and Washington, DC, all reported common salaries within the neighborhood of $150,000 (as did North Dakota, with 5 respondents). The typical wage reported for Texas was $148,000, which is barely above the nationwide common however nonetheless appears on the low aspect for a state with a major know-how trade.

Salaries within the Pacific Northwest weren’t as excessive as we anticipated. Washington simply barely made it into the highest 10 when it comes to the variety of respondents, and common salaries in Washington and Oregon have been $138,000 and $133,000, respectively. (See Determine 8 for the complete record.)

The very best-paying jobs, with salaries over $300,000, have been concentrated in California (5% of the state’s respondents) and Massachusetts (4%). There have been a number of attention-grabbing outliers: North Dakota and Nevada each had only a few respondents, however every had one respondent making over $300,000. In Nevada, we’re guessing that’s somebody who works for the on line casino trade—in any case, the origins of likelihood and statistics are tied to playing. Most states had no respondents with compensation over $300,000.

Determine 8. Common wage by state

The bottom salaries have been, for probably the most half, from states with the fewest respondents. We’re reluctant to say greater than that. These states sometimes had below 10 respondents, which signifies that averaging salaries is extraordinarily noisy. For instance, Alaska solely had two respondents and a median wage of $75,000; Mississippi and Louisiana every solely had 5 respondents, and Rhode Island solely had three. In any of those states, one or two extra respondents on the government stage would have an enormous impact on the states common. Moreover, the averages in these states are so low that each one (or virtually all) respondents have to be college students, interns, or in entry-level positions. So we don’t suppose we will make any assertion stronger than “the excessive paying jobs are the place you’d anticipate them to be.”

Job Change by Wage

Regardless of the variations between states, we discovered that the will to alter jobs based mostly on lack of compensation didn’t rely considerably on geography. There have been outliers at each extremes, however they have been all in states the place the variety of respondents was small and one or two individuals seeking to change jobs would make a major distinction. It’s not terribly attention-grabbing to say that 24% of respondents from California intend to alter jobs (solely 2% above the nationwide common); in any case, you’d anticipate California to dominate. There could also be a small sign from states like New York, with 232 respondents, of whom 27% intend to alter jobs, or from a state like Virginia, with 137 respondents, of whom solely 19% have been pondering of fixing. However once more, these numbers aren’t a lot completely different from the entire share of attainable job changers.

If intent to alter jobs as a result of compensation isn’t depending on location, then what does it depend upon? Wage. It’s by no means shocking that respondents with the bottom salaries (below $50,000/yr) are extremely motivated to alter jobs (29%); this group consists largely of scholars, interns, and others who’re beginning their careers. The group that confirmed the second highest need to alter jobs, nonetheless, had the very best salaries: over $400,000/yr (27%). It’s an attention-grabbing pairing: these with the very best and lowest salaries have been most intent on getting a wage enhance.

26% of these with annual salaries between $50,000 and $100,000 indicated that they intend to alter jobs due to compensation. For the rest of the respondents (these with salaries between $100,000 and $400,000), the proportion who intend to alter jobs was 22% or decrease.

Salaries by Certification

Over a 3rd of the respondents (37%) replied that they hadn’t obtained any certifications prior to now yr. The subsequent largest group replied “different” (14%), that means that that they had obtained certifications prior to now yr however not one of many certifications we listed. We allowed them to put in writing in their very own responses, they usually shared 352 distinctive solutions, starting from vendor-specific certifications (e.g., DataRobot) to college levels (e.g., College of Texas) to well-established certifications in any variety of fields (e.g., Licensed Info Methods Safety Skilled a.ok.a. CISSP). Whereas there have been definitely circumstances the place respondents used completely different phrases to explain the identical factor, the quantity of distinctive write-in responses displays the nice variety of certifications obtainable.

Cloud certifications have been by far the preferred. The highest certification was for AWS (3.9% obtained AWS Licensed Options Architect-Affiliate), adopted by Microsoft Azure (3.8% had AZ-900: Microsoft Azure Fundamentals), then two extra AWS certifications and CompTIA’s Safety+ certification (1% every). Understand that 1% solely represents 27 respondents, and all the opposite certifications had even fewer respondents.

As Determine 9 reveals, the very best salaries have been related to AWS certifications, the Microsoft AZ-104 (Azure Administrator Affiliate) certification, and the CISSP safety certification. The typical wage for individuals itemizing these certifications was larger than the typical wage for US respondents as a complete. And the typical wage for respondents who wrote in a certification was barely above the typical for many who didn’t earn any certifications ($149,000 versus $143,000).

Determine 9. Common wage by certification earned

Certifications have been additionally related to wage will increase (Determine 10). Once more AWS and Microsoft Azure dominate, with Microsoft’s AZ-104 main the way in which, adopted by three AWS certifications. And on the entire, respondents with certifications seem to have acquired bigger wage will increase than those that didn’t earn any technical certifications.

Determine 10. Common wage change by certification

Google Cloud is an apparent omission from this story. Whereas Google is the third-most-important cloud supplier, solely 26 respondents (roughly 1%) claimed any Google certification, all below the “Different” class.

Amongst our respondents, safety certifications have been comparatively unusual and didn’t seem like related to considerably larger salaries or wage will increase. Cisco’s CCNP was related to larger wage will increase; respondents who earned the CompTIA Safety+ or CISSP certifications acquired smaller will increase. Does this replicate that administration undervalues safety coaching? If this speculation is right, undervaluing safety is clearly a major mistake, given the continuing significance of safety and the potential of new assaults towards AI and different data-driven methods.

Cloud certifications clearly had the best impact on wage will increase. With only a few exceptions, any certification was higher than no certification: respondents who wrote in a certification below “Different” averaged a $9,600 wage enhance over the previous few years, versus $8,900 for respondents who didn’t receive a certification and $9,300 for all respondents no matter certification.

Coaching

Collaborating in coaching resulted in wage will increase—however solely for many who spent greater than 100 hours in a coaching program. As Determine 11 reveals, these respondents had a median wage enhance of $11,000. This was additionally the biggest group of respondents (19%). Respondents who solely reported enterprise 1–19 hours of coaching (8%) noticed decrease wage will increase, with a median of $7,100. It’s attention-grabbing that those that participated in 1–19 hours of coaching noticed smaller will increase than those that didn’t take part in coaching in any respect. It doesn’t make sense to invest about this distinction, however the information does make one factor clear: for those who have interaction in coaching, be critical about it.

Determine 11. Common wage change vs. hours of coaching

We additionally requested what forms of coaching respondents engaged in: whether or not it was firm offered (for which there have been three options), a certification program, a convention, or another form of coaching (detailed in Determine 12). Respondents who took benefit of company-provided alternatives had the very best common salaries ($156,000, $150,000, and $149,000). Those that obtained certifications have been subsequent ($148,000). The outcomes are related if we take a look at wage will increase over the previous three years: Those that participated in varied types of company-offered coaching acquired will increase between $11,000 and $10,000. Wage will increase for respondents who obtained a certification have been in the identical vary ($11,000).

Determine 12. Common wage change vs. sort of coaching

The Final Phrase

Knowledge and AI professionals—a rubric below which we embody information scientists, information engineers, and specialists in AI and ML—are well-paid, reporting a median wage just below $150,000. Nonetheless, there have been sharp state-by-state variations: salaries have been considerably larger in California, although the Northeast (with some exceptions) did properly.

There have been additionally important variations between salaries for women and men. Males’s salaries have been larger no matter job title, no matter coaching and no matter educational levels—regardless that girls have been extra prone to have a sophisticated educational diploma (PhD or grasp’s diploma) than have been males.

We don’t see proof of a “nice resignation.” Job turnover by way of the pandemic was roughly what we’d anticipate (maybe barely under regular). Respondents did seem like involved about job safety, although they didn’t need to admit it explicitly. However excluding the least- and most-highly compensated respondents, the intent to alter jobs due to wage was surprisingly constant and nothing to be alarmed at.

Coaching was vital, partially as a result of it was related to hireability and job safety however extra as a result of respondents have been genuinely desirous about studying new expertise and bettering present ones. Cloud coaching, notably in AWS and Microsoft Azure, was probably the most strongly related to larger wage will increase.

However maybe we must always go away the final phrase to our respondents. The ultimate query in our survey requested what areas of know-how would have the largest impact on wage and promotions within the coming yr. It wasn’t a shock that a lot of the respondents mentioned machine studying (63%)—nowadays, ML is the most popular subject within the information world. It was extra of a shock that “programming languages” was famous by simply 34% of respondents. (Solely “Different” acquired fewer responses—see Determine 13 for full particulars.) Our respondents clearly aren’t impressed by programming languages, regardless that the information means that employers are keen to pay a premium for Rust, Go, and Scala.

There’s one other sign price taking note of if we glance past the extremes. Knowledge instruments, cloud and containers, and automation have been practically tied (46, 47, and 44%). The cloud and containers class contains instruments like Docker and Kubernetes, cloud suppliers like AWS and Microsoft Azure, and disciplines like MLOps. The instruments class contains instruments for constructing and sustaining information pipelines, like Kafka. “Automation” can imply a number of issues however on this context in all probability means automated coaching and deployment.

Determine 13. What applied sciences may have the largest impact on compensation within the coming yr?

We’ve argued for a while that operations—efficiently deploying and managing purposes in manufacturing—is the largest difficulty going through ML practitioners within the coming years. If you wish to keep on prime of what’s taking place in information, and if you wish to maximize your job safety, hireability, and wage, don’t simply discover ways to construct AI fashions; discover ways to deploy purposes that dwell within the cloud.

Within the basic film The Graduate, one character famously says, “There’s an excellent future in plastics. Give it some thought.” In 2021, and with out being wherever close to as repulsive, we’d say, “There’s an excellent future within the cloud. Give it some thought.”



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